Sperry Boat Shoes For Men Models And Reviews [2017]

sperry boat shoesIf you asked most people you know what comes to mind when they think boat shoes, put your money on Sperry being the first thing out of their mouths. While the most iconic brand out there, a little known fact is that they actually invented them.

In 1935 Paul Sperry, a sailor, set out to design a new kind of shoe–one without a leather sole–that would prevent sailors from slipping and sliding on the deck with every wave. Modeled after the grooves in the paw of dogs that inspired his traction design, the Sperry sole was born. And the rest, as they say, is history.

These days boat, or deck shoes, are much more prevalent, and are as much a fashion staple as they are a tool for boaters. With their classic casual styling, you see them on men just about everywhere, as they’re favorites for the home, office, and going out. They’re even popular with the younger set, and they now come in a range of styles, materials, and colors.

Sperry is still king of the castle when it comes to this line, and there are many styles and colors to choose from.

Here are some of the classics as well as updates, some modern fan favorites, and a guide to navigating the Sperry waters when it comes to your particular needs and preferences.

Best Sperry Boat Shoes For Men Models

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Authentic Original Two-Eye

The classic Sperry.

The details include hand-sewn top sole around the toe for comfort and fit, and a kicker at the heel to help hold its shape. The 360-degree lacing helps secure your foot, as you can tighten or loosen it to your comfort level. The upper is a single solid piece for a more comfortable fit over the top of your foot.

The iconic wave grooves of the sole provide slip resistance and grip, as they channel the water out from under your feet. The rubber outsole is sewn on, which proves for a more long-lasting and durable lifespan.

There’s a slightly raised heel, specially designed to navigate the obstacles and natural contours of the deck of a boat. The EVA heel cup provides comfort, cushion, and shock absorption.

This is highly recommended for the avid boater and someone who likes the fashion side of it. It’s a timeless, classy look that will never go out of style. You can choose from 10 different colors, and single or dual tones.

Authentic Original Raincoat

If you’re more of a serious boater, out in wetter and rougher conditions, this is more in line with your needs. The sole contains mini lugs with the traditional Sperry siping, which increases the level of traction delivered.

The rubber outsole is cupped in shape, also adding protection against the elements and heavy weather. The upper leather is coated in rubber and water-resistant.

You get the standard 360-degree lacing for a secure, personalized fit, and the molded EVA heel cup and “Ortholite” footbed cushion for absorbing shock and provided excellent cushioning and comfort.

The outsole is designed with enhanced grip and is of course non-marking. If your needs are a bit more serious in terms of weather, this is a good choice.

Gold Cup Authentic Original Cyclone

For the more discerning boater or fashion-forward shopper, this is the Original Two Eye, fancied up a notch. If you prefer a little more luxury, have a look-see.

Do you like a super soft lining? Then these are squarely in your wheelhouse. It’s constructed from lambskin. The uppers are made from high quality, supple leather, and the eyelets are 18-carat gold-plated.

You can still take these out in the bay, and the siping will channel the water between you and deck to prevent slipping, and you can tighten them to fit your foot precisely.

Same great construction in this one, just taken up a notch in terms of style.

Original Orleans Boat

As the name implies, this is actually the original.

The first one, invented by Sperry himself in 1935. If you’re a classicist, you can stop reading right now and get ye to the shoe store (or, well, let’s face it, sperry dot com). True to his legacy, they’re made of genuine leather, have the 360-degree lacing, the OrthoLite footbed and the molded EVA heel cup for cushion, support, and shock absorption.

You’ll find waved contours in the soles for traction on both dry and wet surfaces, and of course a non-marking rubber outsole.

Gamefish Boat

If the traditional shoe is too heavy for your feet, check out the Gamefish. It’s 37% lighter than its leather brethren, as the uppers are made of knit, which also provide breathability and more stretch-to-fit level of comfort.

The EVA footbed is removable and designed to compress with the movements of every step and absorb shock so your joints don’t have to.

The classic siping draws water out of your path for traction, and the midsole is built from EVA foam, providing heel-to-toe compression padding. You still get the 360-degree lacing style and customizability in this updated, modern option.

Gold Cup Authentic Original Chevre

Another choice if you want to go first class on style and comfort, the Chevre has linings made from lambskin for a slipper-like level of comfort and softness. These have hand-sewn full-grain leather uppers and suede collars. You also get the 18-carat gold-plates eyelets on the lacing, for a prominent look.

The rawhide laces are extremely rugged and durable. Same non-marking, ultra-grip delivering rubber outsoles and wave siping for traction in all types of weather. This is classic Sperry for the discerning.

Jack Spade Authentic Original 2-Eye

This is the perfect marriage of form and function, serving you from the cafe or walk home from work, to the weekend on your boat (or better yet, your friend’s boat!).

All the classics are here: 360-lacing and a hand-sewn upper, only on this one it’s made of camouflage canvas instead of leather for a more rugged and casual look. Designed by Jack Spade himself, this edgy, urban design will turn heads.

And you won’t sacrifice comfort or support because you get the Ortholite heel cup absorbing the shock of walking around town, and the wave siping will keep you upright on deck.

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Whether you’re looking for high class fashion, extreme protection from wind, rain, and weather, or tradition that will last for decades, there’s a Sperry boat shoe that’s perfect for you.

With its rich history, fiercely loyal base, and quality that speaks for itself, this icon has earned its reputation.

Sperry Boat Shoes For Men Models And Reviews [2017] syndicated from https://ivoamatheis.tumblr.com

Best Insoles for Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis InsolesWhen faced with Plantar Fasciitis, there are few things you want to do besides curl up into a ball and wallow in the misery of your foot pain.

I know. I’ve been there.

I’ve incurred seven ankle sprains, fallen 30 feet off the face of a cliff, and dropped a bag of cement on my bare toe. And nothing compares to the pain of plantar fasciitis. No. Thing.

There are things you have to do to get better, like stretching, strengthening, icing, and resting. But there’s also a few things that are painless, virtually effortless, and pay huge dividends. One of those things is to go out and get yourself a good footwear for plantar fasciitis and of course – best insoles for plantar fasciitis.

I know the idea of restricting yourself to shoes that you can put those insoles into might dampen your spirits even further, especially if it’s summer, you have fancy affairs to attend, or you’re an athlete, already restricted and blue because of it. But do this.

The sooner you do, the sooner you’ll start to feel better, and you’ll be able to get back to doing all the things you love. And best of all, you won’t feel like you’re walking on shards of glass.

Ok, so that’s settled. You’re gonna get yourself a good pair of shoe inserts.

But which ones, right? There are so many over the counter orthotics to choose from, it’s hard to know where to put your money in order to get the most out of it.

Do you go to the doctor for custom orthotics?
Shop Amazon to see what’s recommended and others are saying, or which are the best sellers? There are shoe inserts of every variety from the best for arch support to those billed as pain relieving.

Should you ask your doctor, go with the pharmacist’s recommendation, or take to the internet?

It’s overwhelming. But don’t worry. We’ve done a lot of the leg work for you, so your legs (and feet) can get some much needed rest. Go get some ice, and have a read. Below you’ll find a broad survey with some of your best options. You’ll be on the road to recovery–and to your favorite activity–in no time.

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Best Plantar Fasciitis Insoles

So, what are the best orthotics For plantar fasciitis?

Vionic with Orthaheel Technology

When someone says Vionic you’re in good hands. These are top of the line, providing supportive technology and the very best arch support that will work for just about any shoe you want.

If you want an insert designed by a podiatrist without having to go get a prescription, go Vionic. They’re designed to heal your fascia with proper alignment and arch support.

They improve pronation, which is a very common side effect of PF.

You can put these into your workout, cross training, casual, work, hiking, or casual shoe for immediate relief, as they’re specifically designed to be worn in your everyday wear shoes.

They employ what they call a biomechanical Tri-Planar Motion control, which acts to realign your feet into their natural position, to support your arches, and to stabilize your gait.

They have a deep heel cup and molded EVA base that provides unparalleled comfort and the best support you can find. The forefoot and heel pad absorb shock and balance the energy of every strike.

They’re super soft nylon and contain an EcoFresh microbe shield to combat the bacteria that causes odor. Just take out the insoles that came with your shoes, and pop these in. If needed, you can trim them to fit snugly.

Superfeet Green

As a runner with falling arches, tight calves, and a propensity to supinate (roll to the outsides of my feet), as someone who has also suffered debilitating shin splints and moan-worthy PF, these things work. I started putting Superfeet Greens into my shoes about 12 years ago after my first bout with PF, and I’ve never looked back.

I now own the whole line, and I wear them in all of my shoes. They are serious miracle workers. They have a very deep heel cup and are contoured just right so that the fascia is fully supported.

They’re also highly shock absorbent. They’re made of a very high density foam, known as closed-cell, and it really cushions your feet with every step you take.

This is Superfeet’s most popular insole due to their outstanding structure and stability that comes with the foam layer.

Superfeet Premium

The Premium line features ¾ insoles for men and women as well as one designed specifically to be worn with high heels. This is welcome news if you need to get dressed up or are dying to get out but the thought of heels makes you want to weep.

These are built for your harder-to-fit shoes that are a little tighter than your everyday casual, workout, or walking shoe.

They have the same deep heel cup for support and absorbing shock, and are coated in microsuede for softness and comfort.

They have built in odor control and a carbon fiber stabilizing cap at the base so the rear of your foot is supported. This also provides stability with structure so you are less likely to roll.

They’re reinforced with their proprietary EVOlyte, which is a carbon fiber and polymer blend.

Powerstep Pinnacle Maxx Orthotics

This orthotic insole has a firm outer shell and the heel platform is angled.

These together give you control as well as ideal arch support. Made of plush VCT and EVA foam, these are super soft and comfortable inserts for your everyday work, casual, and workout shoes. They’re specifically designed for those with PF and tend to pronate. They have a double layer of cushioning and antimicrobial material for odor and bacteria control.

Dr. Scholl

As you can well imagine, there are several to choose from when you’re going Dr. Scholl. There’s a reason these have stood the test of time, are such big sellers, and are still available from the drug store.

They’re a solid choice for a reasonable price. You can choose from the energy massaging gel, work, memory fit, extra support, ultracool, thin, tri-comfort, “air-pillow,” double “air-pillo,” athletic, odor-fighting, three different options manufactured specifically for ladies’ high heels and flats, and many more.

Whichever best suits your specific arch, heel, or whole-foot pain associated with PF, you won’t be disappointed by the relief you get. They’re designed to provide long-lasting comfort, support, and stability, and the relief will be noticed within a few wearings.

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So, yes, there are a lot out of options out there, and that can be overwhelming, I know. But the good news is, here’s a great list you can use to get started.

Figure out which will be best for you, and whichever you choose, you’re that much closer to feeling better. And you don’t have to break the bank or head to the doctor to do it. These are excellent options, all of which bring the science and technology within reach.

Best Insoles for Plantar Fasciitis syndicated from https://ivoamatheis.tumblr.com

HIIT Science Update 08/17: HIIT & the CNS, HIIT & Cortisol, HIIT, Diabetes, PWO Milk & Exercise (Non-)Responders

You don’t have to run/sprint or cycle, plyometrics, kettlebells, etc. there are dozens of ways to “HIIT it”.

Taken on their own, the following studies would probably not have made the SuppVersity cut. They would have been in the Facebook News (I hope you have already subscribed), but they would not have gotten their own article. Together, however, I thought it may be a good idea to pack all of them into a “research update” on high-intensity interval training aka HIIT.  An update that yields insights into the effects of HIIT on the central nervous system, shows that classic “cardio”, but not HIIT messes with cortisol to an extent that diminishes its health benefits, and highlights that and why HIIT is an anti-diabetes tool for almost everyone.

You can learn more about HIIT at the SuppVersity

The Optimal HIIT Program for Your Individual Goals

Tabata = 14.2kcal /min ≠ Fat Loss, Dietin’ Necessary

30s Intervals + 2:1 Work/Rec. – Is That Optimal?

Making HIIT a Hit Part I/II – What Are the Options?

Making HIIT a Hit Part II/II – How to Program?

Triple Your HIIT Energy Expenditure
  • HRV data suggests full central nervous system recovery within 24h — You will remember from previous HIIT discussions as the SuppVersity that one of the potential issues with HIIT is that it is – just like strength training – taxing on the nervous system.

    And, indeed, a soon-to-be-published paper in the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research confirms quite clearly: HIIT will attenuate parasympathetic function and thus offset the balance towards the sympathetic nervous system.

    Figure 1: Heart rate autonomic control at rest and at exercise. Parasympathetic role decreases when the intensity of exercise is increased, and the opposite happens with the sympathetic role (Almeida 2008).

    In said study, the authors compared the effects of two high-intensity interval exercises (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability (HRV). Twelve young adult males (23.3 +/- 3.9 years, 177.8 +/- 7.4 cm, 76.9 +/- 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed two HIIT protocols, one on a cycle ergometer (TBT; eight 20 s bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10 s rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (MCR; eight 20 s all-out intervals interspersed by 10 s rest). HRV outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on three moments: (a) pre-session, (b) immediately post-session, and (c) 24h post-session.

    As previously pointed out, the authors’ “main finding is that responses from HR autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed” (Schaun 2017). Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after HIIT sessions with subsequent recovery within one day. As the scientists point out, “[t]hese results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols” (Schaun 2017).

Smartphone Based Morning HRV Analyses Adequately Reflect Training Loads in Recent Overload + Taper Study (Dissertation) — You may have asked yourselves whether any of the smartphone apps you may have seen that claim to accurately measure the HRV even work. Well, a recent dissertation would suggest they do… assuming you input data is reliable, though.
  • When done within the limits of your individual ability to recovery from exercise, HIIT will elevate testosterone and muscle power, a study in master athletes shows — High-intensity interval training (HIIT) improves peak power output (PPO) in sedentary aging men but has not been examined in masters endurance athletes.

    Therefore, scientists investigated whether a six-week program of low-volume HIIT would (i) improve PPO in masters athletes and (ii) whether any change in PPO would be associated with steroid hormone perturbations.

    Figure 2: Effects of 9x HIIT/6wk on peak power and free testosterone of master endurance athletes (Herbert 2017)

    Seventeen male masters athletes (60 ± 5 years) completed the intervention, which comprised nine HIIT sessions over six weeks. HIIT sessions involved six 30-s sprints at 40% PPO, interspersed with 3 min active recovery. Absolute PPO (799 ± 205 W and 865 ± 211 W) and relative PPO (10.2 ± 2.0 W/kg and 11.0 ± 2.2 W/kg) increased from pre- to post-HIIT respectively (P < 0.001, Cohen’s d = 0.32-0.38). No significant change was observed for total testosterone (15.2 ± 4.2 nmol/L to 16.4 ± 3.3 nmol/L (P = 0.061, Cohen’s d = 0.32)), while a small increase in free testosterone occurred following HIIT (7.0 ± 1.2 ng/dL to 7.5 ± 1.1 ng/dL pre- to post-HIIT (P = 0.050, Cohen’s d = 0.40)).

    “Six weeks’ HIIT improves PPO in masters athletes and increases free testosterone. Taken together, these data indicate there is a place for carefully timed HIIT epochs in regimes of masters athletes,” the authors conclude.

  • HIIT is just as enjoyable for the obese as steady-state-exercise — A commonly heard-of problem with HIIT is that obese clients don’t stick to it because they don’t like the intense nature of HIIT. A group of American and Russian scientists, however, conducted a study that refutes this notion.

    They compared adherence, enjoyment, and cardiometabolic outcomes after 8 weeks of HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT), matched for energy expenditure, in overweight and obese young adults. To this ends, 17 adults were randomized to HIIT or MICT. After completing 12 sessions of supervised training over 3 weeks, participants were asked to independently perform HIIT or MICT for 30 min, 4 times/week for 5 weeks. Cardiometabolic outcomes included cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2 peak), lipids, and inflammatory markers. Exercise enjoyment was measured by the validated Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale.

    Figure 3: Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale during the intervention (mean ± SD). Closed circles MICT, open circles HIIT, p < .05 (Vella 2017).

    Exercise adherence (93.4 ± 3.1% vs. 93.1 ± 3.7%, respectively) and mean enjoyment across the intervention (100.1 ± 4.3 vs. 100.3 ± 4.4, respectively) were high, with no differences between HIIT and MICT (p > .05). Similarly, enjoyment levels did not change over time in either group (p > .05). After training, HIIT exhibited a greater decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol than MICT (-0.66 mmol L-1 vs. -0.03 mmol L-1, respectively) and a greater increase in VO2 peak than MICT (p < .05, +2.6 mL kg min-1 vs. +0.4 mL kg min-1, respectively).

    Interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein increased in HIIT (+0.5 pg mL-1 and + 31.4 nmol L-1, respectively) and decreased in MICT (-0.6 pg mL-1 and -6.7 nmol L-1, respectively, p < .05).

    Whether the said increase in markers of inflammation is a problem, not a hormetic advantage, will have to be elucidated in specific trials. With the available evidence suggesting that HIIT improves cardiometabolic health during supervised lab-based studies (which is also in line with the augmented reduction in LDL in the study at hand), though, it’s very unlikely that this is going to be a major problem.

  • Study sheds a new corticosteroid (cortisol) light on the never-ending HIIT vs. steady-intensity training (SIT) debate — In fact, if the results from a recent rodent study by Chinese scientists translates to human beings, they would suggest that HIIT, not SIT is the way to go.

    In the corresponding experiment, Shen et al. compared the effects of high-intensity interval training (HI) to mild-intensity endurance training (ME), combined with a high-fat diet (HFD) or control diet (CD) on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone levels in rats. Now that’s interesting as it models – as well as you can expect that from the average rodent study – patterns you will observe in large parts of the human population: eat like crap, exercise to mitigate the damage.

    Fifty-three rats were randomized to 6 groups according to diet and training regimen as follows: CD and sedentary (CS, n = 11), CD and ME (CME, n = 8), CD and HI (CHI, n = 8), HFD and sedentary (HS, n = 10), HFD and ME (HME, n = 8), and HFD and HI (HHI, n = 8). All exercise groups were trained for 10 weeks and had matched running distances. Dietary intake, body composition, blood metabolites, and corticosterone levels were measured. Histological lipid droplets were observed in the livers.

    As you’d expect, the HFD, of which I’d like to remind you that it is both, high in carbohydrates and fat and should thus rather be called a “hypercaloric diet”, led to hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and higher body fat (all, P < 0.01, η2 > 0.06), as well as higher corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.09) compared with the CD groups.

    Just as the aforementioned “junk-food-eaters + compensatory-exercisers” hope for, though, the exercise training improved fat weight, glucose, and lipid profiles, and reduced corticosterone levels (P < 0.01, η2 = 0.123). In that, it is yet important to note that body and fat weight, serum glucose and triglycerides, lipid content in the liver, and corticosterone levels (P < 0.05) were lower with HI training compared to ME training.

    Figure 4: Correlations between serum corticosterone and several variables (Shen 2017).

    A similar response was observed for the reductions in HFD-induced body weight gain, blood glucose, and lipid profiles, and corticosterone levels, as well as improvements in QUICKI were better with HHI compared to HME.

    What is worth noting about the data in Figure 4, is that the authors’ correlation analyses revealed that corticosterone levels were significantly associated with phenotype variables (P < 0.01). Corticosterone level was inversely correlated with QUICKI (r = −0.38, P < 0.01). Accordingly, it’s valid to assume that the modification of the diet-induced exacerbation of basal serum corticosterone level may be at the heart of the metabolic imbalance; an imbalance, of which the study at hand shows that it is attenuated to a greater degree with high intensity vs. moderate intensity exercise.

  • Metabolic benefits of HIIT in T2DM are not affected by post-workout milk supplementation — In view of the fact that one may believe that the benefits of HIIT depend on an (over-)expression of AMPK after the highly glycolytic training sessions, you may be (mis-)lead to believe that the same post-workout protein shake, of which I wrote in 2012, already, that it will boost your protein synthesis by 43-222% (re-read the article), could mess with the often-confirmed health benefits of HIIT.
    Figure 5: Change from pre intervention (week 0 vs. post week 12) for (A) % body fat, (B) lean body mass, (C) cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak) and (D) glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in the milk, protein, and water groups (all main effect of time p < 0.05, no group interaction p > 0.05 | Francois 2017)

    Benefits of which a recent study in 53 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes that was conducted at the University of British Columbia shows that they include significant reductions in 24-h mean glucose (-0.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L), HbA1c (-0.2 ± 0.4%), percent body fat (-0.8 ± 1.6%), and lean mass (+1.1 ± 2.8 kg), regardless of whether the subjects consumed milk, an isonutrient control or flavored water placebo after 12 weeks with three weekly HIIT workouts, which involved 10 X 1-min high-intensity intervals of 2x cardio and 1x resistance training separated by 1-min low-intensity recovery periods. 

  • HIIT’s performance does not depend on how insulin resistance you are — Non-responders are a hitherto not understood problem in all three, resistance, classic cardio and HIIT training. One potential determinant of an individuals response to training is his/her insulin tolerance. In fact, previous studies seemed to suggest that there’s a relevant difference between populations with higher or lower levels of insulin resistance.

    With their latest study, scientists from the Universidad de Los LagosOsorno tried to assess the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and the prevalence of non-responders (NRs) in adult women with higher (H-IR) and lower (L-IR) levels of insulin resistance.

    Figure 6: The worse you are off, the greater your improvements in HOMA-IR are going to be – good news for HIIT as a T2DM treatment in sedentary adult women (Álvarez 2017).

    To this ends, forty adult women were assigned to a HIIT program, and after training were analyzed in two groups; a group with higher insulin resistance (H-IR, 40 ± 6 years; BMI: 29.5 ± 3.7 kg/m2; n = 20) and a group with lower insulin resistance (L-IR, 35 ± 9 years; 27.8 ± 2.8 kg/m2; n = 20). Anthropometric, cardiovascular, metabolic, and performance variables were measured at baseline and after 10 weeks of training.

    There were significant training-induced changes [delta percent (Δ%)] in fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores in the H-IR group (-8.8, -26.5, -32.1%, p < 0.0001), whereas no significant changes were observed in the L-IR. Both groups showed significant pre-post changes in other anthropometric variables [waist circ. (-5.2, p < 0.010, and -3.8%, p = 0.046) and tricipital (-13.3, p < 0.010, and -13.6%, p < 0.0001), supra-iliac (-19.4, p < 0.0001, and -13.6%, p < 0.0001), and abdominal (-18.2, p < 0.0001, and -15.6%, p < 0.010) skinfold measurements]. Both groups showed sign. increases in 1RMLE (+12.9, p < 0.010, and +14.7%, p = 0.045).

    What did differ, however, is the change in systolic blood pressure, which decreased sign. only in the L-IR group (-3.2%, p < 0.010).  There were also sign. differences in the prevalence of NRs between the H-IR and L-IR groups for fasting glucose (25 vs. 95%, p < 0.0001) and fasting insulin (p = 0.025) but not for HOMA-IR (25 vs. 45%, p = 0.185), but that’s not surprising: If you have elevated blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, it is obvious that exercise will produce greater reductions … in fact, it’s good news, because it shows that – at least in sedentary adult women – those who need it the most will also benefit the most from HIIT as a means of cardiometabolic disease progression in a sedentary population.

6×1 Min HIIT Before Lifting Shed Extra Fat, Don’t Impair ‘ur Gainz | Daily AM/PM Training = ZERO Gainz | Alcohol W/Out Acute Effect on Workout Recovery of Trained Women | more

What else is worth mentioning? Well, maybe the recent demonstration that both, HIIT and MICT, will significantly increase the 22g post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) by 64±119 kcal 103±137 kcal in MICT and HIIT, respectively – obviously, with the previously established HIIT advantage, of which the latest study shows that it is not a result of increased muscle damage, which was estimated base on increases in CK (9.6±25.5 units/liter in HIIT and 22.2±22.8 units/liter in MICT), but potentially related to the increased sympathetic tone (urine norepinephrine) in response to HIIT (1.1±10.6 ng/mg) that was not observed in response to MICT.

This is, by the way, in line with the initially surprising realization that adolescents will increase, not compensate for school-based HIIT training by reducing their non-HIIT physical activity on days when they HIIT it (Costigan 2017) – a result that seems to clearly refute the “activitystat hypothesis” that posits that an individual maintains a steady level of physical activity (or energy expenditure); and therefore if physical activity increases/decreases in one domain (e.g., school day, leisure time, organized activity, etc.) or time of day, compensatory changes will occur to sustain a “set point” (Rowland 1998) | Comment!

References:

  • Almeida, Marcos B., and Claudio Gil S. Araújo. “Effects of aerobic training on heart rate.” Revista Brasileira de Medicina do Esporte 9.2 (2003): 113-120.
  • Álvarez, Cristian, et al. “Prevalence of Non-responders for Glucose Control Markers after 10 Weeks of High-Intensity Interval Training in Adult Women with Higher and Lower Insulin Resistance.” Frontiers in Physiology 8 (2017).
  • Costigan, et al. “Exploring the impact of high intensity interval training on adolescents’ objectively measured physical activity: Findings from a randomized controlled trial.” J Sports Sci. 2017 Jul 20:1-8. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2017.1356026. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Francois, et al. “Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial.” Front Physiol. 2017 Jul 25;8:528. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00528. eCollection 2017.
  • Hertbert et al. “HIIT produces increases in muscle power and free testosterone in male masters athletes.” Endocr Connect. 2017 Oct;6(7):430-436. doi: 10.1530/EC-17-0159.
  • Hunter, et al. “Potential Causes of Elevated REE following High-Intensity Exercise.” Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2017 Jul 21. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001386. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Rowland, Thomas W. “The biological basis of physical activity.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 30.3 (1998): 392-399.
  • Schaun & Del Vecchio. “High-Intensity Interval Exercises’ Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.” Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: Post Acceptance: August 04, 2017. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000002180
  • Shen, Youqing, et al. “Effects of high-intensity interval versus mild-intensity endurance training on metabolic phenotype and corticosterone response in rats fed a high-fat or control diet.” PloS one 12.7 (2017): e0181684.

HIIT Science Update 08/17: HIIT & the CNS, HIIT & Cortisol, HIIT, Diabetes, PWO Milk & Exercise (Non-)Responders syndicated from http://suppversity.blogspot.com

Looking to the Future: Life After the CrossFit Games

There were two very different tales out of the CrossFit Games this year.

 

In the men’s competition, 2016 champ Mat Fraser delivered a blowout repeat performance, beating the second place finisher, Brent Fikowski, by 216 points. The women’s field was far tighter: the top ten women scored within 252 points of one another. Fittest Woman on Earth Tia-Clair Toomey bested second-fittest Kara Webb by only two points.

 

The 2017 Games yielded the toughest women’s field the competition has ever seen, and elite American CrossFitter (and TRX Duo Trainer™ devotee) Kari Pearce says it was her fittest year yet.

 

Pearce went from CrossFit newbie to Fittest American Woman in less than two years, thanks to her gymnastics background and upper body strength, but this year she was focused on lower body work and weightlifting. That work paid off as Pearce placed in the top ten in the one-rep max snatch event, set a personal record in the power clean, and earned better scores across the board in lifting.

After four days of competition, Pearce finished tenth overall, and placed in the top ten in more than half of the events. While it wasn’t the podium finish she hoped for, Pearce proved once again that she’s a formidable force—especially when things don’t go as planned.

 

The CrossFit Games require an unusual combination of preparation, adaptability, and luck. Half of the events are announced mere hours in advance, giving competitors little time to practice or strategize. Athletes have to be ready for anything Games Director Dave Castro throws their way, and each year that includes new events and equipment. This year, surprises included a sprint to slam a heavy block for 20 feet with a sledgehammer and a Cyclocross course.

 

For Pearce, cycling was the bumpiest event. Her bike chain jammed beyond repair on the course, which meant she had to run her bike back to a CrossFit pit crew—about a half mile away from where she broke down. “They were initially going to fix it, but then they decided it was too much to fix, so they just gave me a new bike,” she says.

 

Though Pearce’s original bike had been properly fitted, she had to take off on the replacement without a full fitting to recover as much time as possible. “In the time trial, I think I took twelfth, and I took 30th [of 40] in the actual event. I was expecting to do better,” she explains. But, as a competitor, Pearce says it’s critical to move past the setbacks. “After an event like that, you have to shake it off…It was frustrating, but stuff happens. You bounce back from it.”

 

And bounce back, she did. Pearce pressed, squatted, carried, and cleaned literally tons of weight over the next three days to fight her way back up the rankings and finish in the top ten.

 

 

“I know I’m fitter this year. Each year, it’s a different set of events. You can’t say, ‘I finished tenth this year, I finished fifth last year, therefore I’m less fit this year.’ This year, I PRed my power clean, I hit a higher snatch than I would have last year. Overall, I’m a better runner, I’m a better swimmer; I know I’m a better athlete.”

 

After the Games, Pearce’s coach, Mike Varrato, told her to start thinking about what she wants to focus on for the 2018 Games. At the moment, Pearce is in decompression mode—hanging out with family and decidedly not counting macros at meals—but she already knows what she needs to do. She’ll take the time to rehab a recurring Achilles injury, then she’ll work on running, more weightlifting, and grit strength to prep for next year.

 

For now, Pearce is enjoying a short break from training. She’ll forego eating every three hours. She’ll take a week or two off from CrossFit. After 13 grueling challenges in four days, she has earned her recovery. But soon she’ll be back to the grind, chasing her goal, training clients, and setting her TRX Suspension Trainer™ up in Central Park for extra reps when she has free time. The CrossFit Games podium is calling Kari Pearce, and she’ll do what it takes to get there.

Looking to the Future: Life After the CrossFit Games syndicated from https://www.trxtraining.com

Best Shoes For Flat Feet: Models And Reviews [2017]

best shoes for flat feetYou probably don’t spend a lot of time thinking about your feet in general, no less the arches. But if you have fallen arches, or flat feet, you can’t help but do much of anything else.

It is a serious condition that can lead to severe pain in your feet, back, ligaments, and muscles, not to mention a strain on your wallet, as you’ll wear your shoes out much more quickly than those with a standard arch height.

If you have low arches or flat feet, one thing you can do, besides stretching and exercise, is buy the best shoes for flat feet. The three things to look for are support, motion control, and stability.

Shoes designed with extra stability and motion control will help aid in the prevention of rolling inward, and with extra support will give your arches the lift, cushion, and support they need for proper shock absorption. Here is roundup if you’re wanting to outfit your closet with the proper dress, walking, running shoes, and sandals.

The arches of our feet are constructed by the inherent curves in two sets of bones–the metatarsal and tarsal–and serve as shock absorbers, supporting and cushioning the stress of our body weight on our hips, ankles, knees, and feet as we walk, run, and even just stand. They also ensure our body weight is evenly distributed between our legs and feet and provide lift.

If the curve of those bones, and hence the arch, is missing, or very low, you don’t get that shock absorber, spring, or distribution, so your feet and joints take much more of a beating.

People with low or no arch can suffer from not only back and foot pain due to excessive weight on the heels, but often have the tendency to roll to the insides of their feet as they walk or run, resulting in added pain in the ankles, calves, knees, hips, and legs. Extreme conditions can lead to bunions, arthritis, hammertoes, shin splints, tendinitis, and plantar fasciitis.

If you have low arches or flat feet, one thing you can do, besides stretching and exercise, is buy the best shoes for flat feet. The three things to look for are support, motion control, and stability. Shoes designed with extra stability and motion control will help aid in the prevention of rolling inward, and with extra support will give your arches the lift, cushion, and support they need for proper shock absorption. Here is roundup if you’re wanting to outfit your closet with the proper dress, walking, running shoes, and sandals.

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Best Walking shoes for Flat Feet For Men and Women

Men’s Walking Shoes:

San Antonio Shoe Makers (SAS)

Handmade, with its roots in San Antonio, Texas, the quality and craftsmanship of SAS is unrivaled and are bar none the best shoes with arch support you can buy. In 1976, the two founders started what they termed a revolution in footwear, and they are going strong today. Doctors and physicians recommend them, and you’d be hard pressed to find a wearer who doesn’t sing their praises.

They have incredibly high standards, use only the finest materials, and design and build their own forms, delivering a fit you simply can’t find anywhere else. They make 104 sizes for men and 88 for women, and their fierce dedication to providing comfort and quality proves itself with every pain-free customer. They meet the standards of Medicare, so if you have any doubt about the quality and precision, ask your doctor.

Men’s Move ON

SAS employs what they call TRIPAD cushioning, which is odor resistant and supports the arch and whole foot, providing lift and critical shock absorption. Another proprietary technology, they employ “S-motion,” providing stability throughout the entire lifecycle of the step–from heel strike, to midfoot, to toes, as they push off the ground. The footbed is also uniquely their own, a contoured molded polyurethane “Everbounce,” and it is removable.

They include a “Supersoft” lightweight sole, which is wider than a standard shoe sole, providing an added shock absorber and stability. This shoe not only cushions and supports, but adds unparalleled stability control and supports the natural gait.

Men’s Stability Walker

The name says it all, as these are all about stability. They feature wider bases for the heel and forefoot, which work to evenly distribute the weight between feet and legs. The molded midsole is designed with added arch support for the plantar fascia, and the outsole is a durable rubber, providing excellent traction and prevention against excessive wear and slippage.

Women’s Walking Shoes:

Women’s Easy Walk

Featuring the same high technology as the men’s Move On, your search for the perfect shoe will be over when you slide into a pair of these. With S-motion, providing exacting cushioning and support to your entire foot as you move through each step, to the “Supersoft” lightweight sole, your arches are fully supported and whole foot stabilized. The Tripad cushions offer shock absorption, and the “Everbounce” footbed cushions and supports weak or fallen arches.

Propet

Another leader in the industry, Propet delivers on its mission to provide the best therapeutic shoes for people with foot pain, feet that are hard to fit, and who suffer from chronic problems like flat feet and diabetes. They design the best shoes for fallen arches.

The company has been designing and manufacturing specialty comfort footwear for over 32 years, with a focus on walking shoes.

Their latest technology is called Rejuve Motion, and it is structured to support and stabilize our natural gait, especially effective for those who roll to the outside. For those who suffer from diabetes and require therapeutic shoes for treatment, Propet is approved by Medicare.

Women’s Stability Walker

Designed with the same technological features as the men’s shoe of the same name, this is one of the best choices available to those who need a stable, supportive therapeutic option.

Recommended by podiatrists and Medicare approved, these will support the arches and plantar fascia with their advanced EVA midsole. They have the same rugged outsole for stability and slip resistance. They have a rigid heel for balance and a removable footbed. I also like that they come in suede as well as leather; and if you prefer the former, they offer pewter and berry in addition to the more classic color options of most walking shoes.

Dress Shoes For People With Flat Foot

When it comes to taking care of your feet, you don’t have to restrict yourself to shoes that make you look like you “need special shoes.” Sure, walking, running, outdoor, and sporty shoes are easy enough to find and even easier to incorporate into your wardrobe for most activities, but sometimes you want a little more polish.

When your work requires you step it up a notch, or you just want to get a little dressed up, there are now more options than ever.

Men’s Dress Footwear:

Vionic Joseph

Vionic uses what they call “orthaheel supportive technology,” which provides added cushioning, support for your arches, and built in comfort that makes your transition from day to night seamless.

This is a classic, stylish lace-up that looks great. No one will know you’ve got biomechanical footbeds designed by a podiatrist inside these babies. The extra deep cups in the heel take the weight off those over-worked heels and ensure your feet are in the proper alignment.

The flexible lightweight EVA midsole is an excellent added shock absorber to support those arches.

San Antonio Shoemakers Men’s Diplomat

True to SAS form, this dress model will make you want to go out every night. It’s a slip-on style, so perhaps a bit more casual than the classic lace-up, but it’s fashionable enough for any outing and won’t leave you dying to get home to take them off.

As with their entire line, they’re made of the highest quality leather and the entire interior is padded. Their trademarked TRIPAD cushion gives the heel and ball of the foot extra support, and the super shock absorbing sole is extremely lightweight.

Women’s Dress Footwear:

The Aetrex line is classified orthotic, but by looking at them, you’d never know. Far from chunky, clunky, or obvious, they’re stylish, streamlined, and unbelievably comfortable. They’ve designed what they term “Lynco orthotic footbeds,” which provide excellent support and spring for your arches. The outsoles are made of blown rubber for support, stability, and durability. You’ll look great in these dress styles, while feeling like you’re wearing your favorite walking shoes all day.

Tori

I love the Tori pump because it’s classic enough to go with a pencil skirt and button-down oxford for work, and stylish enough to go straight out the door at 5:00 to wherever your evening plans take you. The one and a quarter inch heel is low enough to ease any strain a higher one would cause on your calves, hips, and back, but high enough to look polished and professional. They’re made of high quality leather and have a pretty elastic gore topline strap accent.

Leanne Slip-on

If you want something will a little more spice than what you get in a classic pump, look no further than the Leanne slip-on. This is a beautiful, dramatic shoe that literally won’t break your back (or hurt your feet).

The top features a stylish asymmetrical cutout, and the fastener is a small loop and button. Aetrix builds their shoes to the “Healthy 3” specifications: their patented Lynco arch support (which is an orthotic built right into the sole), memory foam cushion footbeds, and embedded anti-microbial.

Best Running Shoes For Flat Feet

When you’re a runner and you have semi or fully fallen arches, you need serious support. There are a few players out there who are getting the job done right, but ASICS is one of the most outstanding.

They repeatedly make the best-of lists every year, as their technology and performance are hard to beat.

Men’s Running Shoes:

ASICS GT 2000 2

Below the main rubber cushioning of the sole, you’ll find the signature gel pad, which delivers supreme padding and shock absorption for the ankle and heel. Below that, in the midsole and beneath, ASICS uses the “FluidRide” system, delivering added support and spring.

Inside the heel, you get the Dynamic DuoPad heel pad, and beneath that, in the FluidRide system, they employ a guidance line that is built to literally guide your stride from heel through the entire strike action to your toe. If you want excellent support and cushioning as well as stability to counter pronation, this is a great choice.

ASICS Gel Kayano 20

Like other models in their line, the Kayano is a standout. Always a fan favorite for good reason, this is one of the best running shoe options out there for people who need ultra cushioning and comfort.

They built this version with something they call “Fluid Fit,” which is a super stretchy covering over the midsection of the foot.

This provides extra stability and balance, due to the position it holds your foot in, without hindrance or binding.

The spring and cushioning in the multiple layers in the heel and footbed make for arch support and maximum absorbing capabilities for the shock of every foot strike.

Women’s Running Shoes:

Brooks Addiction 10

Call me biased because truth: I run in this shoe. But don’t take my word for it. Take the podiatrists’ word for. Or the hundreds of thousands of other runners who sing the praises of the Addiction.

One run and you’ll be amazed by the incredible support and comfort. If you need arch support, balance, and perhaps most importantly, stability, your search is over. Every shoemaker has its own technology.

Brooks employs the BioMoGo DNA in the midsole, delivering cushion that adapts to your foot and stride, a “segmented crash pad” for guiding your track from heel to toe roll-through, and a rollbar for stability.

It’s running at its finest.

ASICS Gel Kayano 19

Another vote for the ASICS Gel Kayano, and I can say with authority, this is also a spectacularly supportive and comfortable running shoe. I know a lot of runners, and the fan base is pretty evenly split between ASICS and Brooks.

The loyalty runs deep on this shoe. They’ve been manufacturing for more than twenty years, and their shoes prove the test of time. the Gel Kayano provides maximum shock absorbing for those with flat feet or low arches, and their gel cushioning in the forefoot and heel give you the cushion and spring you need. If you are one of many runners who have problematic arch and or pronation problems, you are far less likely to suffer pain and injury in this shoe.

The outsole contains tread and grooves that are specially designed to help you track with balance and to increase stability.

Best Sandals For Flat Feet

Men’s Sandals:

Vionic Tide

Heading to the beach or pool doesn’t mean you can’t wear sandals just because you suffer from foot problems. The choices in this category are heads and shoulders above where they were a decade ago, and Vionic, designed by a podiatrist, continues to prove feeling good doesn’t mean sacrificing looking good.

Designed to alleviate foot pain, the toe post is super soft and the strap is lined in foam. They have shock-absorbing EVA midsoles, so your knees, feet, and ankles won’t suffer under the pressure of low or flat arches.

They’re extremely lightweight, have great traction, and a deep heel cup for stability and alignment. The entire footbed is designed to optimize motion control. And with the sharp design, no one would guess. You’ll want to wear these everywhere.

Propet Hornsby XT

The Rejuve Motion Technology that Propet manufactures supports your arches, heels, and the balls of your feet like few shoes can match. Designed for a more rugged outdoor adventure than lying by the pool, it’s cool, secure, rugged, and durable.

Oh, and tromping around in a stream? No problem. They’re leather and neoprene, but won’t bog you down. The straps are adjustable, and the Rejuve Motion Technology diffuses water, is anti-microbial, and optimized to keep your feet comfortable and cool. The rubber outsole is rugged and durable and provides excellent traction and stability.

Women’s Sandals:

Aetrix Adeline

This adjustable quarter strap sandal is beautiful, elegant, and unbelievably comfortable. I love summer sandals that you can dress up or down, and these fit the bill. It’s hard to get a better orthopedic shoe than the Aetrix, and the bonus to their entire line is their stunningly good looks. These come in black, steel, and taupe, and go perfect with dresses or jeans. The “Healthy 3” technology provides support for your arches, memory foam cushioning in the footbed, and are anti-microbial.

Naot Reserve

My guess is if you ask most women what shoe comes to mind when they think comfort, most will put Naot in their top five. For some, it’s always number one. Their latex and cork footbed, enrobed in leather, provides cushion padding, support, and shock absorption, while molding to the precise contours of your foot. The footbed is held in place with hooks and loops and can be removed.

The sole is two inches high and made of polyurethane, making it very lightweight yet sturdy and long lasting. The reserve line contains a metal shank, which they embed in the sole, providing extra stability.

This is a super cute sandal that is versatile, fun, and amazingly supportive.

Selecting The Best Shoes For Flat Feet Video:

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Best Shoes For Flat Feet: Models And Reviews [2017] syndicated from https://ivoamatheis.tumblr.com

Fructose, a New Truth? Meta-Analyses Exonerate Fructose… as Part of Non-Hypercaloric Diets and in Normal Amounts

Editorial provides compelling evidence from meta-analyses, but their results are context-dependent …

“The story of fructose reflects the cyclic nature of much in nutrition.” That’s what John Sievenpiper writes in his latest editorial in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition; and he’s right. If you review the history of the science on fructose you will see that it went full circle – not once, but repeatedly.

As Sievenpiper points out, the latest meta-analyses by Evans et al. (2017a,b) found (a) beneficial effects on blood glucose especially in people with already messed up glucose management, when sucrose (=sugar) was replaced with fructose, and (b) lowered fasting blood glucose and HbA1c, and triglycerides, plus body weight.

Learn more about fructose at the SuppVersity

Bad Fructose not so Bad, After All! Learn its Benefits.

Fructose From Fruit is NOT the Problem

Americans Don’t Eat More Fructose Today

An Apple A Day, Keeps… & More (Guestpost)

Fructose is Not Worse Than Sugar

How Much Fructose is Bad for the Heart?

How’s that possible? Well, Sievenpiper writes: “[Fructose] is now in a position to be endorsed again on the basis of the accumulated evidence” (Sievenpiper 2017). He does yet admit that “[s]ources of uncertainty, however, remain with the inconsistency and imprecision in the estimates for chronic fructose intake” (ibid.). In other words, …

“There is a need for more long-term (>6 mo) randomized trials to clarify the benefits of the replacement of glucose-containing sugars and starches with fructose with the use of “real world” food applications in people with diabetes or at risk of diabetes” (Sievenpiper 2017)

And the Evans studies are neither the first nor the only meta-analyses that highlight the existence of studies which show the advantages of the use of fructose as a replacement for glucose-containing sugars or starches (Agostoni 2011). The European Food Safety Authority provided a scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and the reduction in postprandial glycemic responses. It was concluded that “a cause and effect relationship has been established between the consumption of fructose in place of sucrose or glucose in foods or beverages and reduction of postprandial glycaemic responses” (Agostini 2011) and there’s more:

  • On blood glucose management
  • Livesey and Taylor (2008) found that fructose intake < 90 g/d significantly improved HbA1c concentrations dependent on the dose, the duration of study, and the continuous severity of dysglycemia throughout the range of dysglycemia. There was no significant change in body weight at intakes <100 g fructose/d. Fructose intakes of <50 g/d had no postprandially significant effect on triacylglycerol and those of ≤100g/d had no significant effect when subjects were fasting. At ≥100 g fructose/d, the effect on fasting triacylglycerol depended on whether sucrose or starch was being exchanged with fructose, and the effect was dose-dependent but was less with increasing duration of treatment. Different health types and sources of bias were examined; they showed no significant departure from a general trend.
  • Cozma, et al. (2012) reviewed eighteen trials (n = 209) and found that isocaloric exchange of fructose for carbohydrate reduced glycated blood proteins (SMD −0.25 [95% CI −0.46 to −0.04]; P = 0.02) – albeit with significant intertrial heterogeneity (I2 = 63%; P = 0.001). This reduction is equivalent to a ∼0.53% reduction in HbA1c. Fructose consumption did not significantly affect fasting glucose or insulin. A priori subgroup analyses showed no evidence of effect modification on any end point.
  • On blood lipids
  • Sievenpiper et al. (2009) reviewed sixteen trials (236 subjects) in which isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate raised triglycerides and lowered total cholesterol under specific conditions without affecting LDL cholesterol or HDL cholesterol. A triglyceride-raising effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes when the reference carbohydrate was starch (mean difference 0.24 [95% CI 0.05–0.44]), dose was >60 g/day (0.18 [0.00–0.37]), or follow-up was ≤4 weeks (0.18 [0.00–0.35]). Piecewise meta-regression confirmed a dose threshold of 60 g/day (R2 = 0.13)/10% energy (R2 = 0.36). A total cholesterol–lowering effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes under the following conditions: no randomization and poor study quality (−0.19 [−0.34 to −0.05]), dietary fat >30% energy (−0.33 [−0.52 to −0.15]), or crystalline fructose (−0.28 [−0.47 to −0.09]). Multivariate meta-regression analyses were largely in agreement.
  • Wang, et al. (2014) reviewed 16 trials, again, the scientists distinguished studies with isocaloric and hypercaloric diets and found that fructose supplemented the background diet with excess energy from high-dose fructose compared with the background diet alone (without the excess energy). There was no significant effect in the isocaloric trials (SMD: 0.14 [95% CI: −0.02, 0.30]) with evidence of considerable heterogeneity explained by a single trial. Hypercaloric trials, however, showed a significant postprandial triglyceride raising-effect of fructose (SMD: 0.65 [95% CI: 0.30, 1.01]).
  • On weight gain
  • Sievenpiper et al. (2012) distinguished between isocaloric and hypercaloric trials and found that fructose does not seem to cause weight gain when it is substituted for other carbohydrates in diets providing similar calories. Free fructose at high doses that provided excess calories modestly increased body weight, an effect that may be due to the extra calories rather than the fructose.
  • On blood pressure
  • Ha et al. (2012) who focussed on the potential ill effects of fructose on blood pressure found 13 human clinical trials in which fructose was isocalorically exchanged for other carbohydrate sources for ≥7 days and 2 trials in which the subjects ate hypercalorically. Their analysis shows that the fructose intake in isocaloric exchange for other carbohydrates significantly decreased diastolic (mean difference: −1.54 [95% CI: −2.77 to −0.32]) and mean arterial pressure (mean difference: −1.16 [95% CI: −2.15 to −0.18]). There was no significant effect of fructose on systolic blood pressure (mean difference: −1.10 [95% CI: −2.46 to 0.44]). Furthermore, the hypercaloric fructose feeding trials found no significant overall mean arterial blood pressure effect of fructose in comparison with other carbohydrates. 
  • On uric acid
  • Wang, et al. (2012) conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effects of fructose replacement on uric acid and came to the conclusion that there’s no increase in uric acid if realistic amounts of fructose are consumed. More specifically, the 21 trials in 425 participants suggest that the isocaloric exchange of fructose for other carbohydrate did not affect serum uric acid in diabetic and nondiabetic participants [MD = 0.56 μmol/L (95% CI: −6.62, 7.74)], with no evidence of inter-study heterogeneity. Hypercaloric supplementation of control diets with fructose (+35% excess energy) at extreme doses (213–219 g/d), on the other hand, significantly increased serum uric acid compared with the control diets alone in nondiabetic participants [MD = 31.0 mmol/L (95% CI: 15.4, 46.5)] with no evidence of heterogeneity. Confounding from excess energy cannot be ruled out in the hypercaloric trials. 
  • On non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
  • Chiu et al. (2014) conclude based on 13 trials with respect to the effects on NAFLD that the effects on NAFLD markers can only be observed in hypercaloric trials, where both IHCL (SMD=0.45 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.18, 0.72)) and ALT (MD=4.94 U/l (95% CI: 0.03, 9.85)) increased significantly. In isocaloric trials, on the other hand, there was no effect of fructose to be observed.

Eventually, these results are in line with the long-estalished mechanistic effects of fructose on glycemia. In view of its low GI it cannot be surprising that fructose acutely ameliorates the postprandial increase in glucose.

One thing we should not forget in the debate is that 10g of sugar from coke/liquid food may actually do significantly more harm than the same amount from cookies/solid food.

Previous studies highlight the particular problem with liquid sugars, but they don’t show that fructose was either exclusively or especially problematic: Let’s get away from the “fructose vs. the rest of the world” discussion and focus on those “foods” that contain significant amounts of fructose. If you click on “foods highest in fructose” on nutritiondata.com, you will obviously find “pops, sodas, and soft drinks” on the first three ranks. And while they do have a high fructose concentration (29.8g per 200ml serving), a previously discussed study should remind you of another thing they have in common… ha? Yeah! Right, they are liquid fast absorbing and a real stressor for your liver.

What is important, though, is that this beneficial effect occurs only with isocaloric replacement of sucrose or other glucose releasing carbohydrates and critically depends on the dosage.

Figure 1: Estimated rates of glycogen synthase flux (left), and net hepatic glycogen synthesis (right) in control and fructose studies under euglycemic (5 mmol/l) hyperinsulinemic (400 pmol/l) conditions (Peterson 2001).

As Sievenpiper points out, low-dose fructose (≤10 g/meal) may even improve glycemic control through a “catalytic” effect on hepatic glucose metabolism by inducing glucokinase activity. You may remember this from my previous elaborations on the potential benefits of fructose for glycogen repletion which has been observed to be increased by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy under euglycemic clamp conditions in participants without diabetes (Peterson 2001), as well as to decrease the hepatic glucose production under hyperglycemic clamp conditions in people with type 2 diabetes (Hawkins 2002).

Fructose-Equivalent of <1L Apple Juice or 1.25L Coke & Co Clogs Human Livers Without Visibly Affecting Body Weight or Fat in 12Wk RCT – Study Highlights: Liquid Fructose is Particularly Problematic | more

To use the previously cited evidence to conclude that fructose was not a problem at all is in my humble opinion still problematic: If you review the “accumulating evidence” (which was by the way mostly generated by Sievenkemper himself or his lab), each and every study that seems to exonerate fructose does so only if (a) the diet is isocaloric (not hypercaloric) and (b) the fructose intake is <50g (in Livesey & Taylor 2008 even 75g had initial effects on trigs) per day. Both, however, is not the case in the so-called “developed world”; including the US, where the average teen consumes more than those 75g of fructose (Vos 2008), of which Taskinen et al. have recently shown that they suffice to trigger the storage of extra fat in the liver in the absence of measurable overall weight or fat gain.

In the gluttonous real-world of our consumerist society, it is thus questionable for whom it is true that the previously discussed beneficial effects of fructose outweigh “the mechanisms invoked to explain the purported adverse effects of fructose, such as an increase in de novo lipogenesis” (Sievenpiper 2017). That’s not because fructose is the devil. It’s because everything, from portion sizes to food design, promotes the overconsumption of energy dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages. With the latter being specifically problematic, because the rapidly absorbed fructose can overwhelm the liver and stimulate, as Taskinen et al. have shown it only recently, “significantly increase liver fat content and hepatic DNL and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate” (Taskinen 2017).

It is thus only logical that a recent study from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai is not the first to show that the consumption of high vs. low amounts of fructose from soft drinks, fruit drinks, and apple juice is associated with a 2.8-fold increase in coronary heart disease risk in 1230 men and women aged 45–59 (DeChristopher 2017). In this context, it is important to literally keep a sense of proportion, though. The comparison is after all not drinking fructose sweetened beverages once in a while vs. never. It’s drinking them almost every day (≥5 times/wk) vs. ≤3 times/mo. The notion that the occasional coke is going to kill you is thus as hilarious as the assumption that apples were toxic, because they have a high fructose content. In fact, there is absolutely zero evidence that fructose from other dietary sources, is remotely as problematic as the previously referenced juices, sodas, and co. And DeChristopher et al. also observed that moderate consumers (1–4 times/wk) of orange juice were half as likely to have CHD as seldom/never consumers (OR 0.45; 95% CI-0.26-0.77; P = 0.005)” (DeChristopher 2017) – whether that’s due to or in spite of fructose, is obviously open to debate.

Eventually, food-specific analyses and further longer term trials (>6 months) investigating the exact dose/effect relationship, its dependence on individual subject characteristics (the subjects in the Taskinen study, for example, had a belly, even though they were normal-weight, already – in athletes, those 75 g of fructose may well not have triggered de novo lipogenesis, the relevance of which is debated quite nicely in these letters to the editor, in case you’re interested), and dietary context (total carb, fat and caloric content of the diet, etc.) are still warranted | Comment!

References:

  • Agostoni, C., J. L. Bresson, and S. Fairweather-Tait. “Scientific opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to fructose and reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 558) pursuant to Article 13 (1) of Regulation (EC) no 1924/2006.” EFSA J 9 (2011): 2223-2238.
  • Chiu, S., et al. “Effect of fructose on markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): a systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled feeding trials.” European journal of clinical nutrition 68.4 (2014): 416.
  • Cozma, Adrian I., et al. “Effect of fructose on glycemic control in diabetes.” Diabetes care 35.7 (2012): 1611-1620.
  • DeChristopher, Luanne Robalo, Jaime Uribarri, and Katherine L. Tucker. “Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent coronary heart disease, in US adults, ages 45–59 y.” BMC Nutrition 3.1 (2017): 51.
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Fructose, a New Truth? Meta-Analyses Exonerate Fructose… as Part of Non-Hypercaloric Diets and in Normal Amounts syndicated from http://suppversity.blogspot.com

Acupuncture points contraindicated in pregnancy

Pregnant womanAcupuncture points and pregnancy

Why are some points contraindicated during pregnancy?
This is a very common question and concern. There is no absolute, 100% agreed upon list of these points in modern times. However, knowing the reasons for traditionally contraindicated points has guided my work.

Based on what was taught to me, I arrange contraindicated points into 3 categories:
1. Points that bring the Qi down
2. Points on the abdomen
3. Points based on empirical evidence
Empirical points are passed down from one healer to another, over thousands of years, based on their experience. These points do not necessarily have a “reason,” unless you trust experience (which I do).

Acupuncture or Acupressure Point?

First, let me clarify that terms “acupuncture point,” “acupressure point,” “point,” and “meridian massage point,” all refer to the same thing – a precise location on a meridian where Qi (energy) can be accessed. These points were mapped out thousands of years ago in China.

Qi is powerful

Kayak in riverQi (“chee”) is the energy that we focus on when using acupuncture, acupressure, meridian massage, Shiatsu, and many other techniques based on Chinese medicine. Qi flows through meridians. The meridians are like river beds that form a channel for the passage of water in a river or stream. The power of rushing water can sweep away logs, trees, and stones. Qi also has power and force.

1. Points that bring the Qi down are contraindicated during pregnancy.

Qi flows in all directions in the body: up, down, inward, outward. Certain acupuncture points encourage the flow of Qi in a particular direction. During pregnancy, we want to encourage the fetus to stay up, in the uterus. Therefore, points that strongly direct or pull the Qi down are contraindicated during pregnancy.

The three points below strongly direct the Qi downward:

Gallbladder 21
Large Intestine 4
Bladder 60

2. Points on the abdomen
Especially on the lower abdomen:
Ren (Conception Vessel) 3 – 8
In acupuncture, great caution is required when needling points on the abdomen during pregnancy.

3. Based on empirical evidence
Spleen 6
Bladder 31, 32, 33, 34
Bladder 67

Are points really contraindicated during pregnancy?

I often hear western medical practitioners, and sometimes modern practitioners of Chinese medicine, questioning the legitimacy of this list of contraindicated points for pregnancy. They demand evidence, some kind of modern “evidence based” research to prove the logic of this list.

Here is how I think about it:

I barely understand the possibilities of Qi after many years of study. Even if I had 50 years of experience using acupoints, that is nothing compared to the thousands of years of practical wisdom handed down from ancient times. I trust the experience of the ancients who took the time and effort to learn, and pass on, this information so that we can benefit from it today.

I do not use any of the above points during pregnancy.

There are hundreds of points. Skilled practitioners will know other points that can be used in order to support harmony and health to a pregnant woman.

List of points contraindicated in pregnancy:

Gallbladder 21
Large Intestine 4
Spleen 6
Bladder 31, 32, 33, 34
Bladder 60
Bladder 67
Points on the abdomen *Ren (Conception Vessel) 3 – 8

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